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Women's Status during great Mughal Era and Women’s contribution in Persian Language during the period Great Mughals




  • Abstract 



The role of women in India has in fact been a ‘loss and gain’ business, with their influence fluctuating from time to time. This book attempts to examine the contribution of women in the field of literature under the Islamic rule in India. During the Sultanate as well as the Mughal period, although the status of women was comparatively lower than their male counterparts, this period saw some significant literary contributions from women. This book first analyses the status of women during the Islamic rule in India and participation of women in Mughal’s field, and then outlines their significant literary contributions.



I have reviewed the Book Written by Dev Tiwari on women’s contribution in Persian studies.



About Author: Dev Tiwari, He is PhD & Researcher, Department of Persian Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, and New Delhi, India. He writes many books at Persian Education. He like to analyze the history of Great Mughal’s and including the status of women in Mogul’s period.  



Keywords: Mughal period, Persian literature, Women in Persian, Female Education  



Central Question of the Book: 




  • What was the women status in the Great Mughal Era?



Central Arguments: In This book author discuss about status of women in history of Great Mughal and women played role in their sultanate, and in Mughal period believed to be one of the most interesting and astonishing periods of India’s history. At the great Mughal’s time patriarchy system was very high because women always were working under the men and men commended to whatever he wants to so that’s why in Mughal’s period women gets their Rights, and freedom of Education.




  • Introduction: -



 The status of women saw a great decline in the medieval period, slowly worsening their position in the society. During this period, female infanticide, child marriage, Purdah, Jauhar, and Sati were the main social evils contributing to the low status of women and hindering their overall development.



Women under Islamic Rule: The improvement of women’s status was also visible in the royal sultanate rule and later to a greater extent, under the Mughals. Women living in the royal courts were allowed to receive education and also women were given a chance to prove themselves in different fields. They even took part in the administration of the country. Among the women that made their mark in the Delhi Sultanate, the name Raziya Sultana stands out even today. Raziya Sultana was the only woman to sit on the throne of Delhi. Despite much opposition to her gender, she was able to ascend to the throne and rule the Delhi Sultanate for four years (1236-1240 CE) before being deposed and later murdered. Her four short years were very valuable as she gave a lot of patronage to poets and authors and campaigned for equal rights for women. She was heartily focus on women education and also writes many verses in Persian literature.




  • Persian Literature: 



Persian or Farsi was the administrative language of the Sultanate dynasty. Sikandar Lodi was the first ruler who made Persian an official language in 1514. According to Indian writer Mr. Sharma “He himself was a great poet of Persian language and wrote 9,000 verses in Persian”. However, a little contribution of women under the later Sultanate rulers can be seen. The Persian language reached its highest stage of influence under the patronage of the Mughals. The Mughals contributed in numerous fields ranging from architecture, music, and literature to organization, administration and welfare among others. Although owing to the strict Islamic laws and Purdah system women were at large barred from education and all forms of public life, there were many Muslim women, especially in the Mughal courts, that were able to leave their mark and command influence in various fields of public and administrative life. Imam Fakhruddin Razi was a great scholar in Persian and Arabic and translated the Quran in Persian.




  • Contribution of women in Persian literature.



The first prominent women scholar under the Mughal rule in India was Gulbadan Begum. Gulbadan Begum (1523-1603), the daughter of Mughal Emperor Babur, was a woman of great learning. She written book in Persian language, with lots of Turkish words and phrases, is considered the most important writing of the period. Jahanara Begam (2 April 1614 -16 September 1681) was the eldest daughter of Shah Jahan and had learnt Persian and Quran under Saurh-un-Nisa. he was known as a genius in Persian poetry and wrote Monisul Arwah.



ü Nur Jahan (31 May 1577 -17 December 1645). Nur Jahan’s verses, also called poetry of high order, are proof enough for her talent in Persian. She was interested in collecting books and had a personal library, and purchased a Persian book titled Diwan-i-Kamran with three gold coins.



Nur Jahan (31 May 1577 -17 December 1645). Nur Jahan’s verses, also called poetry of high order, are proof enough for her talent in Persian.



Zeb-un-Nisa (15 February 1638-26 May 1702), was the eldest daughter of Aurangzeb, who he himself guided and literally include her verses in Persian literature and many books. Zeb-un-Nisa wrote poetry in Persian within the macaronic framework.




  • “Female Education”



  ‘Education in Muslim India was not confined to men only. It is a fact that there was no separate education system for girls rather all educational institutions (Madrasas) were meant for boys. Women, owing to the pardah system could not attend public institutions, but in nearly every noble man’s establishment a school mistress of governess was kept. General public could not enjoy the facility of keeping governess at home. Therefore, education amongst women class was not so common. Since the small girls did not observe parda (Seclusion), therefore, they sat with boys in elementary schools. Their education mainly consisted reading the Quran and learning the basic concepts of Islam. Most of the girls would attend Maktab as it was customary, that Imam of the nearby mosque would give time to the children for teaching Quran.



Conclusion:



The conditions of women in both social-economic and political-religious spheres fluctuated, keeping pace with the different regimes; however, women showcased their excellence in various fields and proved that they are no longer unfit to access the areas acquired by men. Patriarchy never gave space for all round development of women. The Mughal’s women played an important role in developing the Persian language and literature. If we scrutinize the details, then one point must come to fore; as the Mughal rule consolidated itself and the culture formation gained momentum, it reflected in the increasing contribution of women in the field of literature and Persian language.



“My understanding on this Book”



According to me this book is awareness of women in the field of Education and tell them about their rights aware to rise up their voice and fight against Gender Discrimination and Gender inequality and including sexily harassment and many others’. Patriarchy, it seems today, has always been an integral part of the Indian society. A slight glance at the status of women in India today makes one think that women have always been considered inferior to men. History, however, says otherwise; women in India have historically had a greater role to play and have commanded far greater respect than they do today.

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